Title: Investigation of the properties of oxide coatings on titanium alloys obtained by plasma electrolytic oxidation
Abstract: The use of structures made of titanium and its alloys, which have improved corrosion, physical and mechanical properties, are in demand in many industries. In this regard, the processes of modifying the surface of metals are of interest. One of the modern and promising methods of metal surface treatment is plasma electrolytic oxidation. Currently, there is a problem of widespread use of this process when DC modes are used in the implementation of the process. This is due to the large consumption of electricity. The purpose of this work is to study the morphological and corrosion properties of oxide coatings obtained in the pulsed anode-cathode mode on titanium alloys VT1-0 and VT5 in various electrolyte solutions. Modification of the surface of titanium alloys was carried out at the duration of the anode current pulse of 250 ± 25 microseconds, the duration of the cathode current pulse of 5 ± 0.5 ms, the repetition frequency of the anode and cathode pulses of 50 ± 0.5 Hz. Alkaline solutions served as electrolytes. Oxide coatings obtained in various electrolytes are characterized by different porosity and coating thickness. Coatings with a finely porous structure, with an average pore diameter from 0.09 microns to 0.4 microns, and larger pore sizes of 0.6 – 0.7 microns were obtained. The porosity of the coatings ranges from 6.12% to 12.2%. According to the data of energy dispersion analysis, it was found that the structure of oxide coatings includes both components of the processed metal and components of the electrolyte solution. The main components, in this case, are oxygen and processed metal, as well as other elements such as boron, phosphorus, aluminium, fluorine, sodium, silicon and others. Corrosion tests according to GOST 9.308-85 under the influence of neutral salt mist at a temperature of (35 ± 2) °C with 1500 hours in the Ascott CC 450 chamber, it was shown that there was no corrosion damage to the coatings.
Keywords: oxide coating, electrolyte, plasma-electrolytic oxidation, corrosion tests, coating morphology, porosity.
Cite this article as: Ramazanova ZhM, Zamalitdinova MG, Kovalenko MV. Investigation of the properties of oxide coatings on titanium alloys obtained by plasma electrolytic oxidation. Kompleksnoe Ispol’zovanie Mineral’nogo Syr’a = Complex Use of Mineral Resources 2021;321(2):5-13. https://doi.org/10.31643/2022/6445.12
Title: Granular materials based on expanded sands and their production waste
Abstract: The article presents the results of studies of granular materials obtained by non-firing technology. For the formation of granules, composite cement and magnesia binders containing waste products of expanded perlite and expanded clay are proposed. Mechanical activation of composite binders intensifies the processes of hydration and structure formation, contributes to increasing the strength of materials. The combination of a binder with a filler in the form of waste from the production of porous aggregates ensures a decrease in the density of the binder, the formation of a finely dispersed porous structure of the composite material, the formation of stable hydrates. The porous structure of the granules is provided by the use of porous sand to form the core of the granules. Studies of the structure of granules by electron microscopy revealed that the reliable adhesion of particles of porous sand with a composite binder stone provides high strength of porous granular materials. Cement granules based on expanded perlite sand are characterized by a density of 300 – 400 kg/m3 and a compressive strength of 1.8 – 2.6 MPa. Magnesia granules based on expanded clay sand have a density of 450 – 500 kg/m3 and compressive strength of 3.5 – 5.7 MPa. The work is aimed at creating effective building materials using resource-saving technology, at the rational use of production waste.
Keywords: granular material, expanded perlite, expanded clay sand, composite binders, porous structure.
Cite this article as: Miryuk OA, Zagorodnyuk LH. Granular materials based on expanded sands and their production waste. Kompleksnoe Ispol’zovanie Mineral’nogo Syr’a = Complex Use of Mineral Resources. 2022;321(2):14-21. https://doi.org/10.31643/2022/6445.13
Title: Geology and minerageny of the Bestobe deposit (Central Kazakhstan)
Abstract: Polygenic stratiform deposits are the largest in the world in terms of barite and manganese reserves, as well as lead and zinc reserves. In the mineral resource complex of the Republic of Kazakhstan, they are of great importance and are distinguished as an independent genetic Atasu type. In the article, the deposits of the Zhailma graben-syncline in a large riftogenic structure are considered as a reference for the Atasu type. The geological structure of the Bestobe stratiform polymetallic deposit located in the eastern part of the Zhailma synclinorium is presented. The stratigraphy of ore formations, mineralization features, morphology of the ore body and the pattern of zoning the distribution of elements in the ore-bearing rocks of the Bestobe deposit are shown. A feature of the deposit is the combination of layered iron-manganese and lead-zinc ores and superimposed zinc-lead-barite mineralization; the sharply subordinate role of hydrothermal-sedimentary ores in the total reserves of lead and zinc; comparative abundance of lead, copper and silver sulfosalts. The analysis of the materials indicates that mineralization at the Bestobe deposit is complex. Its main value is polymetallic ores. The role of iron ore mineralization of the deposit is insignificant. Manganese mineralization is practically absent. Polymetallic ores are conventionally subdivided into lead-zinc-barite, lead-barite, barite and lead-zinc. Strontium is a constant impurity in barites. Lead is mainly concentrated in galena; its insignificant amount is found in geocronite, boulangerite, jamsonite, bournonite, cerussite, anglesite, pyromorphite, plumboyarosite. The bulk of zinc is concentrated in the form of sphalerite.
Keywords: Atasu type, polymetallic, Zhayilma graben-syncline, lead-zinc-barite deposits.
Cite this article as: Askarova NS, Portnov VS, Blyalova GG, Madisheva RK, Dyakonov VV. Geology and mineralogy of the Bestobe deposit (Central Kazakhstan). Kompleksnoe Ispol’zovanie Mineral’nogo Syr’a = Complex Use of Mineral Resources 2022;321(2):22-30. https://doi.org/10.31643/2022/6445.14
Title: Thermodynamic substantiation of compositions of silicon aluminium alloys with increased aluminium content in Fe-Si-Al system
Abstract: A priority direction of ferrous metallurgy development is to increase in output of the high quality metal and metal products of new assortment. One of the methods to improve a quality of steels is to involve of complex alloys based on aluminum, silicon, manganese, etc. for their output. They are necessary as deoxidizing agents and alloying additives. This paper considers the possibility of the thermodynamic substantiation of the aluminum solubility in the ferrosilicon-aluminum complex alloy (FeSiAl) on the basis of their phase diagrams using the osmotic coefficient of the Bjerrum-Guggenheim. Methodology used is based on the theoretical studies of the phase equilibria using the Bjerrum-Guggenheim concept. It includes a set of computer programs in C# language (C sharp) designed to evaluate a deviation scope of properties of a real system from the ideal one. Criterion for evaluation is an osmotic coefficient of the Bjerrum-Guggenheim. The pattern of change in an osmotic coefficient of the Bjerrum-Guggenheim on the ratio of activity of components in the ideal liquid and solid phases (positive Фi <1 or negative Фi >1) under the boundary forming conditions of crystallization regions of phases related to the melting ferrosilicon-aluminum processes is a direct proof of the possibility to use it as a metal reducing agent. The calculated mathematical dependences of the osmotic coefficient of the Bjerrum-Guggenheim permit us to determine the crystallization temperature of the ferrosilicon-aluminum alloy. The alloying process with rich aluminum content is observed at this temperature. The dependence diagrams of an osmotic coefficient of the Bjerrum-Guggenheim of a crystallizing component on the ratio of its activity in the liquid and solid phases demonstrated that a temperature rise leads to strong negative deviations in silicon properties, and thus to its good mixability in the melt with iron and aluminum. Compositions of silicon-aluminum alloys with high aluminum content in the ferrosilicon-aluminum complex alloy (FeSiAl) were determined on the basis of their phase diagrams using the osmotic coefficient of the Bjerrum-Guggenheim with iron content of 12-37%, aluminum 20-25% and silicon 68-38%. The received theoretical results permit to determine conditions which give the maximum possible aluminum assimilation with the ferrosilicon-aluminum melts supplied from the high-ash coal in the melting process of this metal in the ore-thermal furnaces. Thus it is a direct method to develop the output technology of the complex alloys.
Keywords: phase diagrams, Bjerrum-Guggenheim coefficient, crystallization regions of phases, silicon aluminium alloys, ferrosilicon aluminium, complex alloys.
Cite this article as: Baisanov S, Tolokonnikova VV, Narikbayeva GI, Korsukova IYa. Thermodynamic substantiation of compositions of silicon aluminium alloys with increased aluminium content in Fe-Si-Al system. Kompleksnoe Ispol’zovanie Mineral’nogo Syr’a = Complex Use of Mineral Resources 2022;321(2):31-37. https://doi.org/10.31643/2022/6445.15
Title: The problem of optimizing pumping units for oil transportation
Abstract: During pipeline transportation of oil through main oil pipelines, the greater part of the energy consumed is spent on the operation of main and booster pumping units at oil pumping stations. In this regard, the determination of the optimal operating modes of pumping units is an urgent problem for energy saving. The article is devoted to the optimization of the operation of pumping units for energy saving of oil pipeline transport. The operation of pumping units is regulated using removable rotors with different diameters of impellers or a frequency-controlled drive. An optimization criterion has been formulated to minimize the operating costs of pumping units. A technique for determining the energy consumption of pumping units with different diameters of impellers and a frequency-controlled drive is presented. An algorithm for finding the optimal operating mode of pumping units is presented, which was built using the definitions of graph theory and dynamic programming.
Keywords: optimization criterion, energy-saving, oil transportation, graph theory, dynamic programming.
Cite this article as: Bekibayev TT, Ramazanova GI, Pakhomov MA. The problem of optimizing pumping units for oil transportation. Kompleksnoe Ispol’zovanie Mineral’nogo Syr’a = Complex Use of Mineral Resources. 2022;321(2):38-46. https://doi.org/10.31643/2022/6445.16
Title: On the applicability of hardening mechanisms to low-carbon and low-alloy steels
Abstract: On the basis of experimental studies, the approximate contribution of various hardening mechanisms to the yield point of low-carbon and low-alloy steels is estimated. It has been established that for hot-rolled steels (St.3sp and St5ps), solid-solution and grain-boundary hardening (54.0% and 29.0, %) make the greatest contribution to the yield point. The predominant strengthening mechanism of low-alloy steel 10HNDP is solid solution, a high proportion of which in this steel is explained by the resistance to moving dislocations from the side of dissolved atoms of Ni, Cu, P, and Cr in α-Fe. In low-alloy steel 16G2AF, along with these hardening components, the role of precipitation hardening is noticeable (20.0%). It is shown that thermomechanical treatment of steel grade St.5ps leads to an increase in the value of dislocation hardening up to 27.0% due to an increase in the density of dislocations and the retention of most of the dislocations in the rolled stock during accelerated cooling of hot-deformed austenite. It is noted that solid solution hardening with alloying with cheap alloying elements (Mn, Si), as well as dislocation and dispersion hardening through the use of thermomechanical treatment in combination with the addition of carbide and nitride-forming elements V (C, N).
Keywords: hardening mechanisms, yield stress, thermomechanical treatment, accelerated cooling, dislocation density, phase components.
Cite this article as: Jaxymbetova MA, Kanayev AT, Akhmedyanov AU, Kirgizbayeva KZh. On the applicability of hardening mechanisms to low-carbon and low-alloy steels. Kompleksnoe Ispol’zovanie Mineral’nogo Syr’a = Complex Use of Mineral Resources 2022;321(2):47-55. https://doi.org/10.31643/2022/6445.17
Title: Surface-strength approach for concrete monitoring using sensors and shock-pulse method
Abstract: There are many methods used for temperature-strength control of reinforced concrete structures globally. Their majority is associated with the significant challenges of being time-consuming, costly and prone to errors. Therefore, this study investigated the potential applicability of the surface-strength approach of specimens using non-destructive testing methods to derive temperature-strength relationships as an alternative approach to the currently widely used methods. The studies were carried out by comparing the surface strength of small laboratory specimens (SS) and large specimens (LS), imitating building structures, obtained by the shock-pulse method and the strength obtained by the destructive method; and the obtained calibration dependencies were adapted to the results of specimens’ thermal control. The temperature-strength dependence was corrected by comparing the strength and temperature parameters of SS and LS. The obtained nomograms make it possible to correct changes in the temperature regime of hydration of structures curing in real climatic conditions. The final adaptation of the temperature-strength dependence to the real erected structures showed a significant potential of this method in the construction industry. The difference between the actual strength of the drilled cores and the predicted strength of concrete at 28 days was only 1.02%.
Keywords: Concrete maturity, surface strength, shock-pulse method, operational control, sensor.
Cite this article as: Utepov YeB, Aniskin A, Lukpanov RE, Tulebekova AS, Zharassov ShZh. Surface-strength approach for concrete monitoring using sensors and shock-pulse method. Kompleksnoe Ispol’zovanie Mineral’nogo Syr’a = Complex Use of Mineral Resources. 2022;2(321):56-64. https://doi.org/10.31643/2022/6445.18
Title: Deposition of carbonitride titanium coatings by magnetron sputtering and its effect on tribo-mechanical properties
Abstract: Metal parts in machinery often fail as a result of damage caused by wear and tear, resulting in the loss of functionality of the products. Thin film solid nitride coatings are used to improve the wear resistance and service life of parts and are considered to be effective. The article presents a brief overview of modern literature in the field of obtaining wear resistant coatings of titanium carbonitride by using magnetron sputtering. The review presents a detailed assessment of the scientific results obtained depending on the deposition parameters and the conditions for obtaining coatings. The results of the coefficient of friction, wear rate of the coating and counterbody, nanohardness and adhesion force of coatings obtained by magnetron sputtering and its modifications are shown. The influence of alloying elements on the mechanical and tribological properties of titanium carbonitride coatings is considered. Recent advances in the production of titanium carbonitride coatings with improved wear characteristics are discussed.
Keywords: titanium carbonitride, magnetron sputtering, coating, wear resistance, coefficient of friction.
Cite this article as: Mamaeva AA, Kenzhegulov AK, Panichkin AV, Kshibekova BB., Bakhytuly N. Deposition of carbonitride titanium coatings by magnetron sputtering and its effect on tribo-mechanical properties. Kompleksnoe Ispol’zovanie Mineral’nogo Syr’a = Complex Use of Mineral Resources. 2022;321(2):65-78. https://doi.org/10.31643/2022/6445.19
Title: Substantiation of the specific energy intensity of drilling as a criterion characterizing the explosive destruction of rocks on the example of the Koktaszhal
Abstract: Drilling and blasting operations are one of the most important components of the mining industry. Currently, further improvement and optimization of technological processes at mining enterprises are possible mainly due to the determination and constant monitoring of the mining and technological properties of the rock mass – their drillability, explosivity and exaviability. A prospective assessment of the explosivity of rocks in the massif, which is the basis for designing and calculating the parameters of the DBO, is currently possible only using the energy parameters of technological work. The article provides information on methods for studying the strength and elastic characteristics of rocks in natural occurrence. The results of the study of the relationship between the specific energy intensity of drilling and explosive destruction of rocks are presented. The correlation between the specific energy intensity of drilling and the propagation velocity of elastic longitudinal waves is also considered. A comparative analysis is carried out between the traditional calculation of the explosive index using the results of laboratory studies on the physical and mechanical properties of the rocks of the Koktaszhal deposit and the calculation of the explosive destruction index taking into account the energy parameters of drilling. The validity of the use of the specific energy intensity of drilling as a criterion characterizing the explosive destruction of rocks in the design of drilling and blasting operations is shown.
Keywords: Drillability, energy intensity of drilling, explosiveness, rock strength.
Cite this article as: Ozhigin SG, Chunuev IK, Musin RA, Tyan SG. Substantiation of the specific energy intensity of drilling as a criterion characterizing the explosive destruction of rocks on the example of the Koktaszhal deposit. Kompleksnoe Ispol’zovanie Mineral’nogo Syr’a = Complex Use of Mineral Resources. 2022;321(2):79-86. https://doi.org/10.31643/2022/6445.20
Title: Evaporation thermodynamics and sublimation of aluminum telluride
Abstract: The analysis of the researches completed by now showed the lack of information concerning the definition of quantity of the vapor pressure values over the molten and crystalline aluminum chalcogenide. In the work presented here, the saturated vapor pressure over liquid and crystalline aluminum sesquitelluride was determined for the first time by the boiling point method (isothermal version). The compound was synthesized from elements, with a purity of 99.99 wt. %, identified by X-ray phase analysis as a monophase Al2Te3 was used as a research object. Certain vapor pressure of liquid Al2Te3 corresponds to the dependence, vapor pressure over crystalline telluride is Based on the values of saturated vapor, the temperature dependence of the Gibbs free energy of evaporation and sublimation was determined, by differentiating which concerning temperature, the entropies of the condensed phase - vapor transformation were calculated, and then the enthalpy. Thermodynamic functions were as follows: entropy of evaporation of the liquid phase - 60.71 ± 4.08 J/(mol K), enthalpy - 98.65 ± 6.64 kJ/mol; entropy of sublimation of the crystalline phase - 69.37 ± 4.67 J/(mol K), enthalpy - 108.73 ± 7.31 kJ/ mol. The low value of entropy of the aluminum telluride transfer to the vapor phase indicates the presence of associates in the vapor and of the congruent character of evaporation and sublimation of Al2Te3 indirectly. Defined as the difference between the sublimation enthalpies and evaporation, the enthalpy of aluminum telluride melting was 10.08 ± 0.68 kJ/mol, the entropy calculated similarly was 8.66 ± 0.58 J/(mol K). The data obtained coincide with the thermodynamic values found by other authors by calorimetric methods.
Keywords: aluminum telluride, vapor pressure, melting, evaporation, sublimation
Cite this article as: Burabaeva NM, Volodin VN, Nitsenko AV, Tuleutai FKh. Evaporation thermodynamics and sublimation of aluminum telluride. Kompleksnoe Ispol’zovanie Mineral’nogo Syr’a = Complex Use of Mineral Resources 2022;321(2):87-92. https://doi.org/10.31643/2022/6445.21
Title: Cluster-associate model of the viscosity of potassium carbonat
Abstract: In the article, the temperature dependence of the viscosity of a complex inorganic substance - potassium carbonate was obtained and the proposed mathematical model was verified. Viscosity is considered as a chaosensitive property of a liquid inherent in it in motion and at rest. The mathematical model of viscosity was developed using the Boltzmann distribution and the concept of chaotic particles. On this basis, a hierarchical cluster-associate viscosity model is constructed, which takes into account not only the formation of primary clusters, but also secondary associates with respect to them, with the possibility of identifying the degree of cluster association. To adapt the cluster-associated model to experimental data, certain data processing techniques have been developed to identify unknown parameters of the model. The method of processing viscosity data using the entire set of three reference points allows you to determine the indicator of the degree of aggregation of associates. When processing the data on the viscosity of potassium carbonate, a high correlation coefficient was established calculated in comparison with reference values, which indicates the adequacy of the new relationship. This model makes it possible to predict the behavior of the viscosity of potassium carbonate in a higher temperature range. The degree of association of clusters with an increase in temperature decreases, corresponding to the dynamics of the destruction of associates and viscosity in general.
Keywords: concept of randomized particles, Boltzmann distribution, dynamic viscosity, potassium carbonate, cluster, associate.
Cite this article as: Bekbayeva LA, Malyshev VP, Mamyachenkov SV, Makasheva AM. Cluster-associate model of the viscosity of potassium carbonat. Kompleksnoe Ispol’zovanie Mineral’nogo Syr’a = Complex Use of Mineral Resources 2022;321(2):93-98. https://doi.org/10.31643/2022/6445.22