|Title||SEMI-INDUSTRIAL TESTS OF FLOTATION REAGENT FROM RICE HUSK AS COLLECTOR|
|Authors||Yefremova S.V., Bunchuk L.V., Li E.M., Niyazov A.A., Sukharnikov Yu.I. (Almaty)|
National Center on Complex processing of Mineral Raw Materials of the Republic of Kazakhstan RSE, Silicon-carbon Composites Laboratory, Almaty, Kazakhstan
Yefremova S.V., Dr. Tech. Sci., Professor, Head Scientific Secretary of the Center, e-mail: email@example.com
Bunchuk L.V., Cand. Tech. Sci., Senior Researcher,
Sukharnikov Yu.I., Dr. Tech. Sci., Professor, Chief Researcher NCCPMRM RK RSE branch – «Kazmekhanobr» SSPAIE
Li E.M., Head of the Department of Mineral Processing and Semi-Industrial Testing
Niyazov A.A, Cand. Tech. Sci., Deputy Director
|Abstract||At thermal processing of rice husk, pyrolyzate – an organic product (OP), representing a water solution of organic compounds of different classes has been obtained. The presence of hydrophobic and hydrophilic group of atoms in the components of the organic product provides its heteropolar structure. In the conditions of the concentrated plant of SNPUIE Kazmekhnabor RSE “NCCPMRM RK” branch the semi-industrial tests of organic product of rice husk pyrolysis as the collecting agent were conducted on the example of enrichment of polymetal lead-zinc ore of the Akzhal minefield. The organic product has been tested in comparison with the danafloat TM067 selecting agent, by replacing 50 % of its amount, added in all cycles of enrichment technological process. The results of comparative experiments of ore flotation by base regime (with the use of danafloat TM 067) and experimental regime (with the use of the new flotation reagent OP in a composition of the danafloat TM 067:OP = 1:1) has showed that organic product of rice husk pyrolysis shows selective properties and provides the improvement of flotation indicators. Adding of the water-diluted OP solution in ratio 1:1 instead of danafloat TM 067 allows increasing the content of the lead to 0.20 % in the lead concentrate and zinc – to 0.38 % in the zinc concentrate during the increase of metal extraction. It is recommended to use the organic product of rice husk pyrolysis as the universal flotation reagent for lead-zinc ores enrichment.|
|Key words||flotation, flotation agent, collector, enrichment, rice husk, organic product of rice husk pyrolysis, lead-zinc ore|
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|Title||PRODUCTION OF TITANIUM, ALLOYS AND COMPOSITE MATERIALS BY ELECTROLYSIS OF OXIDES IN CALCIUM CHLORIDE MELT: FFC CAMBRIDGE PROCESS. REVIEW|
|Authors||Balikhin A.V., Simonov M.I (Moscow, Russia)|
Russian Institute for Scientific and Technical Information of Russian Academy of Sciences, dep. for Metallurgy abstracts journal gathering, Moscow, Russia
Balikhin A.V., Scientific editor of abstract journal “Metallurgy of the non-ferrous metals”, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Simonov M.I., Cand. Tech. Sci., Scientific editor of abstract journal “Metallurgy and Powder Metallurgy”
|Abstract||The object of the study is a method for producing metallic titanium and its alloys based on cathodic solid-phase electrolysis of titanium dioxide in molten calcium chloride. A review of literary sources is given. The method was developed in the mid-nineties of the XX century at the Cambridge University and is called the FFC Method. The method can be competitive with the traditional Kroll method and is characterized by the simplicity of technology and hardware design, by the use of cheap raw materials and environmental safety. The FFC method makes it possible to process natural minerals directly, for example rutile, while a number of other methods, for example magnesium-thermal, require intermediate production of titanium tetrachloride from the initial ores. The actuality of titanium production with the help of the FFC Cambridge process, possible variants of the mechanism of the reaction for the production of titanium, its alloys and composite materials during the cathodic reduction of oxides in the solid state, as well as the environmental aspects of the implementation of this method are considered. So it is necessary to get detailed technological and economical evaluation of the method. It is pointed out the need for further studies of the FFC method in institutes with electrochemical profile to determine its effectiveness for the production of cheap titanium, refractory alloys and composite materials.|
|Key words||titanium, dioxide, alloys, composite materials, melt electrolysis, electrochemical reduction, calcium chloride, deoxidation mechanism, production cheapen|
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|Title||BIOTECHNOLOGICAL METHODS FOR THE REGENERATION OF FERRIC IRON AND SORPTION OF RARE AND RARE EARTH METALS FROM CIRCULATING SOLUTIONS OF URANIUM IN-SITU LEACH|
|Authors||Balpanov D.S., Ten O.A., Zhappar N.K., Shaikhutdinov V.M., Khannanov R.A. (Stepnogorsk)|
Biomedpreparat Scientific-Analytical Center, lab of . Biotechnology, Stepnogorsk, Kazakhstan
Balpanov D.S., Cand. Сhem. Sci., senior scientific worker
Ten O.A., Cand. Biol. Sci., senior scientific worker
Zhappar N.K., scientific worker
Shaikhutdinov V.M., master, alternate director
Khannanov R.A., specialist, head of lab., e-mail: email@example.com
|Abstract||The article covers current issues of hydrometallurgy, particularly, biotechnological methods implementation into underground-well leaching of uranium. The work describes psychrotolerant strains of chemolithotrophic microorganisms Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans SU-4, UZ-1, UZ-2, UZ-3, which are able to oxidize ferrous ions (Fe2+) to ferric ions (Fe3+) and therefore increasing redox potential of the technological solution pumped into a reservoir. These microorganisms could be a good alternative to currently used oxidant in terms of ecological and economical side. Use of the biotechnological method has also another significantly positive aspect: uranium ore comprise associations of rare and rare-earth metals in the amount allowed for industrial-scale production. As a model object the technological solutions from a deposit Semizbay U (Akmola region) containing selenium, germanium and scandium were studied. The research focused on different microorganisms those are capable of biosorption and bioaccumulation of rare and rare-earth metals, particularly three of them were selected as potential biosorption agents and were used to create a consortium. The consortium was formed by using Rhizopus sp. FZ-1, Monoraphidium sp. CZ and Pseudomonas putida KS28 with the ratio of 1:3:2, respectively. This consortium was able to accumulate 196 mg/g of selenium, 95 mg/g of germanium and 71 mg/g of scandium. Thus, further implementation of biotechnology into hydrometallurgy will significantly help to improve profitability of current deposits as well as to decrease impact to environment of regions with intensive mining industries.|
|Key words||underground-well uranium leaching, biotechnology, biosorption, rare and rare-earth metals|
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|Title||COMPLEX PROCESSING OF DATOLITE MINERAL RAW MATERIALS WITH AMMONIUM HIDRODIFLUORIDE|
|Authors||Krysenko G.F., Epov D.G., Merkulov E.B., Medkov M.A. (Vladivostok, Russia)|
Institute of Chemistry of Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, lab. of processing of mineral raw materials, Vladivostok, Russia
Krysenko G.F., Cand. Chem. Sci., researcher, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Epov D.G., Cand. Chem. Sci.,, leading engineer
Medkov M.A. Dr. Chem. Sci.,, professor, head of lab.
Lab. of optical materials
Merkulov E.B., Cand. Chem. Sci.,,, researcher
|Abstract||The data on investigation of the possibility of complex processing of the datolite minerals with ammonium hydrodifluoride are presented. The fluorination breakdown of the datolite minerals with ammonium hydrodifluoride was carried out in a nickel container that was placed into the reactor with electric heating, at temperature 150 ° C and a mass ratio of a datolite ore to a fluorinating reagent 1: 2.3. Thermogravimetry, X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and chemical analyses were used. Thermogravimetric study showed that the processes occurring during ammonium hydrodifluoride breakdown of datolite ore and datolite concentrate are of similar nature and practically coincide in temperature intervals, however, during fluorination of ore, intensive gas evolution is observed, which is absent in the fluorination of the concentrate. To prevent intense gas evolution during ore fluorination, it is suggested that the charge be kept at room temperature until the fluorination of CaCO3 is complete. It was determined that the fluorination of the datolite minerals with ammonium hydrodifluoride proceeds with the formation of complex fluoroammonium salts of boron, silicon, iron and CaF2. It was shown that aqueous leaching of the fluorinated raw material allows the calcium to be separated in the form of fluorite with a concentration of not less than 95 %, and keeping the fluorinated datolite ore at 395 ° C for 1 hour allows up to 99.8 % silicon and boron to be recovered to the gas phase. To separate the mixture of fluoroammonium salts of boron and silicon, it has been offered to use a sublimation or ammonia hydrolysis. Two variants of the technological scheme of datolite ore processing by ammonium hydrodifluoride are offered with the obtaining of commercial products: ammonium tetrafluoroborate, ammonium hexafluorosilicate, amorphous silica, fluorspar concentrate and ocher, which will promote the rational use of this mineral raw material.|
|Key words||datolite mineral raw materials, ammonium hydrodifluoride, fluorination, leaching, sublimation, ammonium tetrafluoroborate, ammonium hexafluorosilicate|
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|Title||PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS DURING PRETREATMENT IN THE PRODUCTION OF CERAMIC MATERIALS|
|Authors||Kopylov N.I., Solotchina E.V. (Novosibirsk, Russia)|
Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences (SB RAS), lab. of intercalation and mechanochemical reactions, Novosibirsk, Russia
Kopylov N.I., Dr Tech. Sci., leading scientific worker e-mail: email@example.com V.S. Sobolev’s Institute of Geology and Mineralogy of SB RAS, analytical dep., Novosibirsk, Russia
Solotchina E.V., Dr Geol.-Mineral. Sci., leading scientific worker
|Abstract||The paper deals with the studies of the problem connected with the formation of nepheline in the mixtures for the production of ceramic materials containing clay from the Krasnoyarsk and Sukpak deposits in Tuva, and cake from dearsenation of the sludge of the Khovu-Aksy tailings. During (Roentgen Phase Analysis) RPA studies of the products of the preliminary treatment of mixtures, substantial changes were established in the phase composition of the material prepared for roasting. The major phases of the initial mixtures (silicate Na4Mg2Si3O10 and calcite) are completely absent wherein after pretreatment; and instead them, a new phase – nepheline – is formed in a substantial amount (~ 50 %). To determine a possible scheme of nepheline formation under the conditions of preliminary treatment of the mixtures, several versions of the chemism of this process were considered, in combination with thermodynamic analysis. It was demonstrated on the basis of the calculated Gibbs energy values that the formation of nepheline may occur under the conditions of presented kind of treatment with the minimal number of components in the system, without the participation of carbonate phases (calcite, dolomite). The interaction between silicate Na4Mg2Si3O10 and kaolinite Al4[Si4O10](OH)8 proceeds with the formation of synthetic nepheline Na[AlSiO4], or the interaction between silicate Na4Mg2Si3O10, kaolinite Al4[Si4O10](OH)8 and orthoclase K[AlSi3O10] proceeds with the formation of natural nepheline K0,25Na0,75[AlSiO4].|
|Key words||nepheline, silicate, kaolinite, orthoclase, Gibbs energy, clay, dearsenation cake, calcite, entropy, enthalpy|
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|Title||BALKHASH COPPER-SMELTING PLANT SULFURIC ACID WORKSHOP’S SLIME COMPOSITION|
|Authors||Linnik X. A., Amanzholova L. U., Sharipova A. S., Zagorodnyaya A. N. (Almaty)|
Institute of Metallurgy and Ore Benefication, labю of rare scattered elements, Almaty, Kazakhstan
Linnik X. A., engineer , e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Sharipova A. S., Cand.Tech.Sci., scientific worker
Zagorodnyaya A. N., Doctor Tech.Sci., professor, main scientific worker Lab. for physical methods of investigation
Amanzholova L. U., Cand.Tech.Sci., scientific worker
|Abstract||The production of copper from the charge at the Balkhash copper smelting plant is carried out according to the following scheme: melting in a molten bath matte conversion copper refining. In this case a number of technogenic formations (slags, dust, gases, solutions and slimes from flushing gases, copper electrolytic slimes) are obtained, wherein contained in the charge various elements are concentrated. Separate formations either are already raw materials for the extraction of certain elements, or they are considered as raw materials for other elements. Now from copper electrolytic slime the plant produces Au, Ag, Se, from the gases – H2SO4. The device for Re extraction from solutions of flushing gases is designed. The solutions contains in addition to Re also the elemental Se of red modification. The project covers cleaning the solution from solid suspensions and Se (slime). This slime can be considered as a raw material for Se extraction. Now there is no technology for obtaining Se from such slimes. As a rule the development of any technology for the extraction of metals begins from study of raw materials. The purpose of this work is to study the chemical, phase and granulometric composition of the slime formed during flushing of the gases. Studies were carried out on a sample of slime separated from industrial solutions. Slime was studied by various methods of analysis: X-ray fluorescence (XRF); chemical; X-ray phase diffraction (XRPhD); infrared spectroscopy (IRS); sieve. In the slime were found 18 elements (Pb, Se, Re, Al, Si, S, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr, Cd, I, Hg, Ni, Br, Bi, As), which content varies in a wide range. The slime-forming element is Pb (57.87 % by weight), the content of other elements interesting for their possible recovery as follow, % by weight: 4.6 Se, 0.14 Re, 0.33 I, 0.57 Hg. According to the XRPhD data in the slime basic compound is PbSO4 (92.8 %), there are selenium compounds: PbSeO4 (4.8 %) and very small amounts of elemental selenium of three modifications (0.4, 0.9 and 1.1 %). The presence of PbSO4 and PbSeO4 compounds is confirmed also by IRS method. But in addition to the named compounds, in the slime there are other compounds that contain groups SeO32-, СН2, СН3, С═О (of yet unidentified compounds). The granulometric composition of the slime is represented approximately 48.4 % by particles smaller than 0.4 mm, into which 47.84 % of Pb, 47.45 % of Se, 55.31 % of Re are recovered. The results obtained will be used to substantiate the method for selenium recovery from the slime into the solution, taking into account the properties of its compounds. Nevertheless, studies on the specification of the substantial composition of Se contained in the slime must continue. It was not possible to determine all the selenium-containing compounds because of its insignificant content in the slime compared to lead.|
|Key words||solutions, slime, elemental, quantitative, substantial, granulometric composition, selenium, lead, rhenium|
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10 Xue JIao Li, Hong Ying Yang, Zhe Nan Jin, Guo Bao Chen and Lin Lin Tong. Transformation of selenium-containing phases in copper anode Slimes during leaching. The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society. 2017. 69, 10, 1931–1938. (in Eng.)
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|Title||PREPARATION OF TARGETS BASED ON ALUMINIDE SYSTEMS FOR MAGNETRON DEPOSITION OF HEAT-RESISTANT COATINGS|
|Authors||Uskenbayeva A. M., Aubakirova R. K, Panickin A. V., Dzhumabekov D. M (Almaty)|
Institute of Metallurgy and Ore Benefication, lab. Metallography, Almaty, Kazakhstan
Uskenbayeva A. M., engineer, e-mail: email@example.com
Aubakirova R. K., Cand Tech. Sci, leading scientific worker
Panickin A. V., Cand Tech. Sci, leading scientific worker, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Dzhumabekov D. M engineer
|Abstract||The present work offers results of experimental work on obtaining targets based on aluminide systems which composition corresponds to nickel, titanium and cobalt monoaluminides for magnetron sputtering purposed at obtaining intermetallic aluminide coatings on steel substrates. In the course of the process the work on mixing the powders of each system and pressing them on a steel substrate has been conducted, which, being the basis of the target, ensures the tightness of the magnetron seals and the removal of heat at the required level. The blanks obtained in such a manner were sintered in a vacuum induction furnace, as well as on a constructed test installation through hot pressing method. It was demonstrated that sintering in an induction furnace leads to a large porosity of the blanks, that isn’t admissible at production of targets. At sintering samples by hot pressing, simultaneous pressing and sintering of powders were achieved, which became the advantage of hot pressing, in which the material is rapidly compacted at relatively low specific pressures. The combination of pressing and sintering in one operation made it possible to obtain samples that were practically nonporous. At the same time sectional targets from aluminum and plates of cobalt, nickel and titanium were obtained. The preparation of such targets was carried out by pouring the aluminum melt into a mold on the bottom of which the plates were laid. It was revealed that sectional targets retain their shape during the sputtering process and are not destroyed. However, they do not allow obtaining coatings of precisely specified composition. The produced targets were sputtered on a magnetron sputtering installation to produce aluminide films on a steel substrate. As a result, high-quality AlNi, AlCo, and AlTi aluminide coatings of uniform thickness, characterized by high adhesion to the substrate were obtained. So the coatings having a uniform, defect-free surface, a homogeneous structure and tightly adhering to the substrate were obtained. The conducted experimental work enabled to determine the optimal methods for obtaining and configuration of targets for magnetron sputtering of coatings based on nickel, cobalt and titanium aluminides. In order to obtain the coatings having a minimum deviation in chemical composition from the set one, it is recommended to use targets sintered from powder mixtures by hot pressing method.|
|Key words||coating, nickel, titanium, cobalt aluminides, target, magnetron, hot pressing, sputtering|
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ELECTROCHEMICAL PROCESSES STUDY
|Title||THE ELECTROLYTE COMPOSITION INFLUENCE ON THE STRUCTURE OF DEPOSITED ALLOYS OF NICKEL WITH REFRACTORY RARE METALS|
|Authors||Kilibayeva S. K., Yakhiyaeva Zh. E., Agapova L. Ya., Altenova A. N., Sukurov B. M. (Almaty)|
Institute of Metallurgy and Ore Beneficiation, laboratory of rare scattered elements, Almaty, Kazakhstan
Kilibayeva S.K., Cand Tech.Sci, scientific worker
Yakhiyaeva Zh.E., engineer
Agapova L.Ya., Dr.Tech.Sci., associate professor, leading researcher, e-mail: email@example.com
Altenova A. N., leading engineer National lab. for collective using
Sukurov B. M. Cand Tech.Sci, leading researcher
|Abstract||The present work provides the results of electrolytic deposition of alloys on the basis of nickel with refractory rare metals (Re, W, Mo) from sulfate fluoride and ammonium-sulfate electrolytes in the conditions of membrane electrolysis. The precipitations analyses of alloys were carried out by X-ray phase and electronic-microscopic methods. Influence of composition of electrolyte on structure, the phase and chemical composition of the deposited alloys is investigated. It is established that from sulfate fluoride solutions powders ternary (Ni-Re-W, Ni-Re-Mo) and quaternary (Ni-Re-W-Mo) alloys of dark gray color with a green shade precipitated; from ammonium-sulfate solutions three-component Ni-Re-Mo alloy in the form of a foil of gray color is deposited. Results of the raster electronic microscopy (REM) have shown that precipitate deposited from fluoride sulfate solutions, consists of alloys of Ni with Re, W and Mo, and their particles generally have mainly layered structure (heavy fraction) and also agglomerate structure (easy fraction). In case of the alloys obtained from ammonium-sulfate electrolytes, the surface of the agglomerated particles becomes smoother. Element composition of the precipitates of Ni-Re-W-Mo alloys deposited from sulfate fluoride solutions, according to electron microscopy is following, wt. %: 57.24 Ni; 2.01 Re; 0.36 W; 1.82 Mo; 5.34 Ti; 32.92 O. For the Ni-Re-Mo alloys deposited from ammonium-sulfate solutions the following element composition is established, wt. %: 58.67 Ni; 22.71 Re; 9.88 Mo; 0.19 Ti; 8.69 O. In the alloy deposited from ammonium-sulfate electrolytes, tungsten isn’t found. The presence of titanium in alloys is explained by its transition from cathode material to precipitates of alloys in the course of electrolysis. Heat treatment of alloys slightly reduces the content of oxygen in them and doesn’t lead to strong change of composition of alloy. Results of the X-ray phase analysis have shown that after alloys annealing operation, change of phase structure isn’t recorded.|
|Key words||electrolysis, electrolytic alloys, nickel, rhenium, tungsten, molybdenum, titanium, electrolyte, microstructure, electrodeposition|
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ECONOMICS AND PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT
|Title||THE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF GOLD MINING FROM ALLUVIAL DEPOSIT BY BULLDOZER-SCRAPER AND IN-SITU LEACHING METHODS|
|Authors||Rogov E.I. Zhatkanbayev E.E., Zhatkanbayeva Zh.K., Zhatkanbayev E.T. (Almaty, Astana)|
Institute of Mining named after D.A. Kunaev, Almaty, Kazakhstan Rogov E.I. Republic of Kazakhstan, professor Dr. Tech. Sci., Academician of National Academy of Sciences of Kazakh University of Technology and Business, cathedra of Chem. Technol. and ……, Astana, Kazakhstan
Zhatkanbayev E.E., Dr.Tech.Sci., associate professor, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Zhatkanbayev E.T., Master of Finance, laboratory assistant Eurasian University named after L.N. Gumilev, cathedra of ………..,, Astana, Kazakhstan
Zhatkanbayeva Zh.K., Cand.Chem.Sci., associate professor
|Abstract||The method of underground borehole leaching (UBL) is one of the economically beneficial and environmentally safe methods for uranium mining. Currently, researches on the application of this method to the extraction of other metals are carried out, technical and economic aspects of the geotechnology of borehole leaching are estimated. Based on the theoretical data and experience of uranium underground leaching, a comparative analysis of the economic efficiency of gold mining by bulldozer-scraper (open) method and underground borehole leaching is presented in this paper. The analysis is based on mathematical modeling of gold leaching for different widths of placers and the radius of technological cells. Dependence of production cost on placer width is established. In the case of a classical open method of extraction, the prime cost of production increases with the increase in the width of the placer due to the increase in idle runs of machinery and a decrease in the efficiency of operation. And in the case of underground borehole leaching, the prime cost is reduced at the placer width increase. It is established that the upper limit of the width of the placer is 80 meters for economically efficient extraction by a bulldozer-scraping method, while for a wider width it is not economically profitable. The opposite picture is observed when the method of underground gold leaching is applied, with increasing width of the placer (up to 100 meters and more) economic efficiency is increasing, and the minimum threshold is determined to be 40 meters. It was also found that such negative for the open method placer parameters as water cut and burial for the UBL method are positive. Thus, the UBL method is an alternative to the open one and allows to involve alluvial precious metals in the mining, which previously were considered economically and technologically inefficient.|
|Key words||underground borehole leaching, open method, economic efficiency, placer, gold, geotechnology, alluvial deposit, mathematical modeling|
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