Challenges of Science

Materials of International Practical Internet Conference “Challenges of Science”

ISSN ISSN 2707-9481, ISBN 978-601-323-252-2, 22 November 2021, Issue IV


Title:  Processing the results of space observation of the processed areas of Karaganda

 Authors:   Alimzhanova A., Kadylbekova Kh.    

Abstract:     The article is devoted to the development of a method for tracking deformation in the underworked territories of Karaganda based on the data processed by radar images from the ENVISAT satellite. The article provides an overview of the use of modern radar satellite systems. The step-by-step search of archival data on the territory of Karaganda in the Eoli-sa program is described. The processing of radar images from the ENVISAT satellite for the period from 2003 to 2010 in the SARscape module of the ENVI software package is described in detail. Based on the processed data, graphs of dynamic processes were compiled. The analysis of the results of interferometric processing of radar data is performed. Traditional and modern methods of tracking the deformation of underworked territories are also analyzed.

Keywords: satellite radar interferometry, landscape changes, observation of geodynamic processes, radar data, processing of space images, motion interferomogram.

Cite this article as: Alimzhanova A.; Kadylbekova Kh. (2021). Processing the results of space observation Of the processed areas of Karaganda. Challenges of Science. Issue IV, 2021, pp. 5-11. https://doi.org/10.31643/2021.01  



Title:  Constructivist approach in pedagogical science

 Authors:   Arpentieva M.R..; Retnawati H.; Akhmetova T.A.; Azman M.N.A.; Kassymova G.K.     

Abstract:     The article examines the problems of constructivist understanding of education, the innovations, opportunities and limitations that the constructivist model of the pedagogical process offers. The aim of the work was to analyze the constructivist model of education and those innovations and prospects for understanding the modern educational process that the constructivist approach brings. Constructivism changes the view of teachers and other scientists and practitioners in their view of what is happening in the relations of people in education. Due to its controversial nature, the development of the ideas of constructivism in the context of the development of educational ideologies and technologies leads to the reconceptualization of the traditional model of education, and the constructionist model of education itself can and should become the object of systematic methodological, theoretical, empirical and applied research. Any of the educational approaches available now can be disclosed as an example of a constructivist model of education, the leading features of which are the dialogic nature of education, the focus on understanding the inner and outer world in dialogue with significant other people, the consideration of such a dialogue as a process of building a person's own life world and himself, as a creative "rediscovery" of the basic truths of human existence, as the adoption of socially and personally significant decisions in a situation of educational, professional, life choice.

Keywords: education, pedagogical process, constructivist approach, intersubjectivity, reflexivity, consensus.

Cite this article as: Arpentieva M.R..; Retnawati H.; Akhmetova T.A.; Azman M.N.A.; Kassymova G.K. (2021). Constructivist approach in pedagogical science. Challenges of Science. Issue IV, 2021, pp. 12-17. https://doi.org/10.31643/2021.02   



Title:  How to Integrate STEM Education in The Indonesian Curriculum? A Systematic Review

 Authors:   Arlinwibowo J., Retnawati H., Kartowagiran B.     

Abstract:     STEM education has received a lot of attention, including in Indonesia, because it is considered capable of preparing competitive students in the 21st century. However, the implementation of STEM learning is constrained because there are no standard guidelines according to the curriculum 2013 (education curriculum in Indonesia). Therefore, the aim of this study is to find an integration formula for STEM learning and the curriculum 2013 based on the synthesis of various literature to find a formula for implementing STEM learning in accordance with the curriculum 2013. This study is a systematic review. The data sources in this research are 46 selected literatures and relevant to the research objectives published between 1996 and 2020. The data sources are literature published in ISBN books, government documents, and journals. The data collected from the literature were analyzed with a thematic model starting with data introduction, initial coding, compiling code within a theme, analyzing themes, naming themes, and relating findings to research questions. The research resulted in a learning step that combines EDP in STEM, the scientific approach in the 2013 curriculum, and project learning steps. The merger produces a guideline for implementing STEM learning in the 2013 curriculum starting from problem identification, making problem-solving designs, design realization, testing and studying product deficiencies, improving products, drawing conclusions, and communicating the findings of the learning process.

Keywords: STEM Education, Indonesia, Curriculum, Teaching Activity.

Cite this article as: Arlinwibowo, J., Retnawati, H., & Kartowagiran, B. (2021). How to Integrate STEM Education in Indonesian Curriculum? A Systematic Review. Challenges of Science. Issue IV, 2021, pp. 18-25. https://doi.org/10.31643/2021.03



Title:  Upgrading Quality of Learning with E-Learning System

 Authors:   Kassymova G.K., Vafazov F.R., Pertiwi F.D., Akhmetova A.I., Begimbetova G.A.     

Abstract:     This article studies different ways of learning. Behavioral, cognitive, constructivist learning, multiple learning styles, e-learning, and brain-based learning are interrelated with each other and teachers should ensure that all students should be involved in all types of learning styles to get learning outcomes. The Covid-19 pandemic has forced governments around the world to implement policies to limit face-to-face meetings with community activities. This makes community activities carried out virtually. It also happens in the education system, teaching and learning activities which are usually carried out in classes face to face, this time has to use the internet as a learning medium. E-learning environments create lessons interactive. Knowledge is integrated from many different sources when students are learning something. The result of this study by analyzed ways of learning is five learning approaches. The stages of learning approaches are student to be active, engaged in the learning process, increase previous knowledge, explore the situation, and be motivated. Nevertheless, the use of the internet for learning or e-learning also cannot be separated from various deficiency and emerging issues within the higher education context.

Keywords: education, e-learning, students, approach, and teachers.

Cite this article as: Kassymova, G.K.; Vafazov, F.R.; Pertiwi, F.D.; Akhmetova, A.I.; Begimbetova, G.A. (2021). Upgrading Quality of Learning with E-Learning System. Challenges of Science. Issue IV, 2021, pp. 26-34. https://doi.org/10.31643/2021.04



Title:  Processing and production of pellets from poor-grade manganese-containing raw materials

 Authors:   Tastanova A., Abdykirova G., Temirova S., Biryukova A.     

Abstract:    there is a review of current researches in the processing of poor-grade manganese raw materials. The variety of manganese minerals caused by the valent state of metal in compounds is demonstrated. Different processing methods for manganese-containing mineral and technogenic raw materials are considered. The process of extraction of manganese from ferruginous manganese ore using reduction roasting and magnetic separation, beneficiation technology of poor-grade manganese ore to improve the ratio of Mn/Fe; processes of beneficiation and sintering of fine ferruginous manganese ore with low manganese content; production of agglomerate from the concentrate of manganese poor-grade ore to produce ferrosilicon manganese are described. Results of the authors researches intended to obtain concentrate from manganese-containing sludge and to produce hardened pellets suitable for melting into ferromanganese on its basis using a new component of the binder are presented.

Keywords: poor quality manganese raw materials, beneficiation methods, manganese concentrate, agglomeration, manganese pellets

Cite this article as: Tastanova A.; Abdykirova G.; Temirova S.; Biryukova A.; (2021). Processing and production of pellets from poor-grade manganese-containing raw materials. Challenges of Science. Issue IV, 2021, pp. 35-39. https://doi.org/10.31643/2021.05



Title:  On the possibility of flotation processing of technogenic gold-containing waste from enrichment plants

 Authors:  Semushkina L.V., Narbekova S.M.     

Abstract:     The aim of the work is the flotation processing of gold-containing tailings using composite flotation (CF) agents. According to the results of chemical analysis, the studied tailings sample contains 0.39 g/t gold. The main part of the initial tailings sample is represented by rock-forming minerals such as quartz, clinochlore, microcline, tremolite, albite, calcite, and muscovite. According to the results of the rational analysis, 39.50% of gold is in the hard-to-recover form with quartz; 28.87% is in the form of fine-grained gold; 31.63% is in intergrowths with sulfides and rocks. The optimum reagent scheme of flotation processing of tailings was chosen: degree of regrinding of 95% of grade -0,074 mm, consumption of sodium butyl xanthate of 100 g/t, consumption of foaming agent T-92 of 30 g/t. Under the chosen reagent scheme the gold-containing concentrate containing 6,4 g/t gold at the recovery of 49,68% was obtained. Preliminary regrinding of tailings allows to increase the gold recovery in the blanks concentrates by 27.96%. The reagent scheme of flotation of gold-containing tailings with the application of composite flotation (CF) agent was tested. A composition of sodium butyl xanthate and reaeflot was used as a composite flotation reagent for the improvement of gold extraction from flotation tailings. Application of composite flotation (CF) agent pre-treated on the dispersant increases gold recovery into gold-containing concentrate by 4.65%, in comparison with the basic collector sodium butyl xanthogenate. Consumption of flotation agent CF is reduced by 20%.

Keywords: anthropogenic waste, flotation, composite reagent, concentrate.

Cite this article as: Semushkina L.V.; Narbekova S.M. (2021). On the possibility of flotation processing of technogenic gold-containing waste from enrichment plants. Challenges of Science. Issue IV, 2021, pp. 40-47. https://doi.org/10.31643/2021.06



Title:  Research and development of a comprehensive technology for processing kaolinite clays in Kazakhstan

 Authors:  Dyussenova S., El-Amir Ahmed A. M.    

Abstract:     In the Republic of Kazakhstan, the most promising are kaolinite clays of the Alekseevsky deposit. For effective processing of clays, it is necessary to develop special methods of processing, since satisfactory results were not achieved when using standard methods of gravity processing. The article provides the results of studies of the effect of preliminary chemical activation on the yield of the kaolinite fraction during gravitational processing. Previously, the method of preliminary chemical activation of raw materials in a solution of sodium bicarbonate has proven itself well in the processing of various mineral raw materials. It is determined that as a result of preliminary chemical activation, changes in the phase composition occurred. The dependence of the yield of the kaolinite fraction on the temperature of chemical activation, duration, and the ratio of W:T and the concentration of the sodium bicarbonate solution. Based on the results obtained, a technology for the complex processing of kaolinite clays has been developed, which provides for the preliminary chemical activation of the feedstock at the beginning of the process, which will effectively isolate high-quality kaolinite and quartz products, which will significantly reduce the flow of materials entering for sintering. As a result of activation, the phase composition of the kaolinite fraction has changed: the percentage of the kaolinite fraction has decreased; new phases of muscovite and sodium aluminosilicate appeared; the amount of quartz increased.

Keywords: kaolinite, quartz, silicon module, chemical activation, chemical processing, technology.

Cite this article as: Dyussenova S.; El-Amir, Ahmed A. M. (2021). Research and development of a comprehensive technology for processing kaolinite clays in Kazakhstan. Challenges of Science. Issue IV, 2021, pp. 48-54. https://doi.org/10.31643/2021.07



Title:  Disposal of copper electrofining solutions

 Authors:  Gladyshev S.V., Nurhadiyanto D.    

Abstract:    The paper presents studies of the processing of spent copper electrolyte from the processing of non-ferrous metal scrap at a copper smelter in Kazakhstan. For the processing of the spent electrolyte, a stage-by-stage neutralization was carried out using zinc sublimates and potash. As a result of the first stage of neutralization with zinc sublimations to pH 4.7, a precipitate with a content of PbO 44.69 %; PO2 16.36 % was obtained. After processing the sediment with an alkaline solution, carbonization and melting at a temperature of 900 oC, metallic lead and tin-containing slag with a content of SnO2 of 16.36 % were obtained. As a result of the second stage of neutralization with potash to pH 7.1, a precipitate was obtained-with a CuO content of 76.45 %. After the third stage of neutralization with potash to pH 9.5, a precipitate with a content of NiO 27.63 % and ZnO 55.75 % was obtained. After treatment of the precipitate with a solution containing 100 g / dm3 KOH, a zinc-containing solution with a ZnO content of 225.0 g/dm3 and a precipitate were obtained, after calcination of which nickel oxide with a NiO content of 89.14 % was obtained.

Keywords: copper electrolyte, zinc-containing product, potash, copper-containing precipitate, metallic lead, slag.

Cite this article as: Gladyshev S.V.; Nurhadiyanto D. (2021). Disposal of copper electrofining solutions. Challenges of Science. Issue IV, 2021, pp. 55-60. https://doi.org/10.31643/2021.08



Title:  The role of teaching practicum in the future biology teachers' professional training

 Authors:  Nurgaliyeva A.    

Abstract:    Currently, education is moving towards a modern quality standard, which implies the improvement of the training of students of pedagogical universities for their future professional activity. Accordingly, the priority is given to the problem of training future teachers in the period of teaching practicum, the potential of which is crucial as a “vital foundation” for personal experience in determining professional interests and needs, in mastering the methods of educational activities. In this regard, the scientific problem of training students for self-realization in the context of teaching practicum within a certain pedagogical system will contribute to the expansion and enrichment of the research area of pedagogical science and practice.

Keywords: teaching practicum, professional activities, competency, biology teacher, student, education.

Cite this article as: Nurgaliyeva A. (2021). The role of teaching practicum in the future biology teachers' professional training. Challenges of Science. Issue IV, 2021, pp. 61-66. https://doi.org/10.31643/2021.09



Title:  Change in the phase composition of low-quality bauxites as a result of chemical activation

 Authors:  Abdulvaliyev R.A., Akcil A.    

Abstract:    As a result of separation of a fine fraction of gibbsite-kaolinite low-quality bauxite from the Krasnogorsky deposit, it is possible to increase its silicon module. When bauxite is chemically activated in a solution of sodium bicarbonate, the fine fraction is effectively separated from the large one and the phase composition changes – the calcium silicate phase disappears and the calcite phase is formed. With an increase in the activation temperature, the content of kaolinite and siderite decreases, the content of quartz and hematite increases. Studies have shown that at chemical activation temperatures of 120 oC, lasting more than 120 minutes and 200 oC, lasting more than 40 minutes, a dawsonite phase is formed in bauxite, which compacts the mineral structure. When determining the mode of chemical activation, it is necessary to take into account the negative possibility of the formation of dawsonite.

Keywords: gibbsite-kaolinite bauxite, chemical activation, sodium bicarbonate, phase composition, conditioning, technology

Cite this article as: Abdulvaliyev R.A.; Akcil A.; (2021). Change in the phase composition of low-quality bauxites as a result of chemical activation. Challenges of Science. Issue IV, 2021, pp. 67-75. https://doi.org/10.31643/2021.10



Title:  Production of non-ferrous metal concentrate in the processing of pyrite slags

 Authors:  Gladyshev S.V., Azlan M.N.    

Abstract:    The method of preliminary chemical activation of mineral raw materials was used in the conducted studies for the complex processing of pyritic slags. The influence of preliminary chemical activation of kaolinite clays of Alexeevsky deposit in the solution of sodium hydrogen carbonate on the separation of kaolinite and quartz fractions was studied. The temperature of 150 oC, the duration of 120 minutes, and the concentration of sodium bicarbonate solution of 120 g/dm3 should be considered the optimum mode of activation. As a result of activation, the phase composition of the kaolinite fraction changed: the percentage of kaolinite fraction decreased; new phases of muscovite and sodium aluminosilicate appeared; the amount of quartz increased.

Keywords: pyritic slags, chemical activation, leaching, phase composition, non-ferrous metals, neutralization, concentrate.

Cite this article as: Gladyshev S.V.; Azlan M.N. (2021). Production of non-ferrous metal concentrate in the processing of pyrite slags. Challenges of Science. Issue IV, pp. 76-81. https://doi.org/10.31643/2021.11



Title:  Silica removal from waste of ilmenite concentrate pyrometallurgical processing

 Authors:  Ultarakova А., Lokhova N., Yessengaziyev A.    

Abstract:    The article presents the study results for alkaline leaching of fine ilmenite concentrate dusts from electric smelting. The physical and chemical properties of the dusts were studied using chemical and instrumental analysis methods. The dust composition was determined, X-ray phase analysis showed that the dust sample substance is in the X-ray amorphous state, iron is present in the trivalent state, and silicon is bound to magnesium. The dust sample study using a scanning electron microscope showed that part of the titanium is bound in a hard-to-disclose anasovite encapsulated in amorphous silicon oxide. The leaching study of electric smelting dust with sodium hydroxide solutions included the study of the effect of sodium hydroxide concentration, process duration, temperature, S: L ratio. The optimal conditions for dust leaching from electric smelting of ilmenite concentrate have been established: temperature 80-90 °C, duration 90-120 min, ratio S: L = 1: 5, the concentration of sodium hydroxide solution 110-115 g/dm3. The silicon extraction degree into the solution under these conditions was 77.7%. The behavior of accompanying components of chromium, zinc, iron, and manganese during dust leaching was also studied. X-ray phase analysis of the cake after leaching shows almost complete amorphization of the leached product, the main phase is a solid solution of Fe2O3·TiO2.

Keywords: fine dust, ilmenite concentrate, leaching, sodium hydroxide, silicon

Cite this article as: Ultarakova А.; Lokhova N.; Yessengaziyev A. (2021).  Silica removal from waste of ilmenite concentrate pyrometallurgical processing. Challenges of Science. Issue IV, pp. 82-90. https://doi.org/10.31643/2021.12



Title:  Beneficiation of fine chromite slurry at Donskoy Mining and Beneficiation Plant JSC on concentration tables to produce hard chromite pellets

 Authors:  Bondarenko I.V., Kuldeyev E.I.    

Abstract:    Processing industrial products and technogenic waste is an important task in the mining and metallurgical industry. In Kazakhstan, the processing of chrome ore from the Kempirsay group of deposits has produced more than 15 million tonnes of slurry tailings containing up to 30 wt% chrome oxide. The best results in the world for the processing of fine chromium raw materials are shown by Turkish enterprises with the use of the separation of slurries by size classes and beneficiation on concentration tables. The authors conducted researches for beneficiation of chrome slurry from Dubersay tailings pond (Kazakhstan) with the use of similar technological methods that enabled to obtain concentrates with chrome oxide content of 51 wt% and increasing the yield of beneficiated fine-graded chrome concentrates by 14% as compared with the existing beneficiation process. Strong chromium pellets with a crushing resistance of over 5000 N/pellet were produced from the rich chromium concentrates with the use of the ferrofluxing iron-calcium-silica binder technology by roasting the composition consisting of rich chromium concentrate, ferrous diatomite, and intermediate products and wastes of the chromium industry.

Keywords: chrome production slurry, environmental impact, chrome slurry beneficiation, concentration table, rich chrome concentrate.

Cite this article as: Bondarenko I.V.; Kuldeyev E.I. (2021). Beneficiation of fine chromite slurry at Donskoy Mining and Beneficiation Plant JSC on concentration tables to produce hard chromite pellets. Challenges of Science. Issue IV, pp. 91-94. https://doi.org/10.31643/2021.13



Title:  The main approaches to the organization of research activities in primary education in the Republic of Kazakhstan

 Authors:  Uteshkaliyeva A., Kinzhibayeva F.    

Abstract:    This article discusses the main approaches to organizing research activities, forms and methods of organizing research activities in the course of the study of "Natural Science" in the elementary school, allowing the formation of the pedagogical process on the basis of developmental learning. Authors consider that introducing elementary school students to research activities should be focused on their own activities.

Keywords: research activities, elementary education, updated content of education, science education, elementary school student.

Cite this article as: Uteshkaliyeva A.; Kinzhibayeva F. (2021). The main approaches to the organization of research activities in primary education in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Challenges of Science. Issue IV, 2021, pp. 95-98. https://doi.org/10.31643/2021.14



Title:  Organizational and managerial conditions for creating a health-saving environment of an educational organization

 Authors:  Uteshkalieva A., Kumarova Z.    

Abstract:    This article examines the organizational and managerial conditions for creating a health-preserving environment of an educational organization, presents a model of a health-preserving environment that contributes to increasing the levels of activity, positive cognitive motivation, interest, organization, independence of students of the educational space. Authors highlighted that it is necessary to properly organize students' individual educational and cognitive activities that correspond to individual capabilities and abilities, as well as the conditions of the educational environment.

Keywords: healthy lifestyle, health-saving environment, organizational and managerial conditions.

Cite this article as: Uteshkalieva A.; Kumarova Z. (2021). Organizational and managerial conditions for creating a health-saving environment of an educational organization. Challenges of Science. Issue IV, pp. 99-102. https://doi.org/10.31643/2021.015



Title:  Deposition of a titanium carbonitride coating by magnetron sputtering on a substrate with a potential voltage

 Authors:  Mamaeva A.A., Panichkin A.V., Kenzhegulov A.K., Kshibekova B.B.    

Abstract:    Titanium carbonitride (TiCN) is of high relevance in the field of creating wear-resistant protective coatings in order to ensure maximum wear resistance and service life of parts of friction units. Titanium carbonitride coatings were obtained by magnetron sputtering at various bias substrate in the range from 0 to -130 V with a step of 10 V. The effect of the bias substrate on the deposition rate, phase and elemental composition, and the friction coefficient of the obtained coatings was investigated. As a result of the obtained dependences, the most optimal mode of deposition by the method of reactive magnetron sputtering with a negative bias voltage on the substrate was determined.

Keywords: titanium carbonitride, magnetron sputtering, bias substrate, coating, substrate.

Cite this article as: Mamaeva A.A.; Panichkin A.V.; Kenzhegulov A.K.; Kshibekova B.B. (2021). Deposition of a titanium carbonitride coating by magnetron sputtering on a substrate with a potential voltage. Challenges of Science. Issue IV, 2021, pp. 103-108. https://doi.org/10.31643/2021.16

Title:  Formation of teachers of the initial stage of education - readiness for innovation

 Authors:  Uteshkalieva A., Saginova B.    

Abstract:    This article examines the readiness and formation of teachers of primary education - innovative activity. The relevance of this topic lies in the search and application of innovative technologies in primary schools, where the main task of teachers is to quickly adapt to modern innovations and the ongoing changes in updated education. The XXI century is called the century of high or digital technologies, and therefore creative, active, fast-learning and inquisitive people are in demand in any industry. The modern system of updated education develops children's research and cognitive structure of activity. In this regard, adjustments are made to the educational program in almost every country to develop students' abilities, based on research and cognitive activity, where one of the first steps is primary school.

Keywords: primary education, innovative activity, readiness of innovative activity.

Cite this article as: Uteshkalieva A.; Saginova B. (2021). Formation of teachers of the initial stage of education - readiness for innovation. Challenges of Science. Issue IV, pp. 109-112. https://doi.org/10.31643/2021.17



Title:  Ways of organizing the educational process in elementary school based on the project-research form of educational activity

 Authors:  Uteshkaliyeva А., Galymova N.    

Abstract:    This article examines the ways of organizing the educational process in primary school on the basis of the project-research form of educational activity. The relevance of this topic lies in the search and application of the design and research form of educational activity in primary school, where the main task of teachers is to quickly adapt to modern projects and the ongoing changes in updated learning. The XXI century is called the century of high or digital technologies. Creative, active, fast-learning and inquisitive people are in demand in any industry. The modern system of updated education develops children's research and cognitive structure of activity. Therefore, in the educational program, in almost every country, adjustments are made for the development of students' abilities, based on research and cognitive activity, where one of the first steps is primary school.

Keywords: primary education, project, design and research work.

Cite this article as: Uteshkaliyeva А.; Galymova N. (2021). Ways of organizing the educational process in elementary school based on the project-research form of educational activity. Challenges of Science. Issue IV, pp. 113-116. https://doi.org/10.31643/2021.18



Title:  Development of programmable logic controller teaching aids on electrical motor installation course among vocational school students in Aceh, Indonesia

 Authors:  Pratama H., Azman M.N.A., Zakaria N.A., Khairudin M.    

Abstract:    Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) is a competency that must be mastered by third-level vocational school students in an electrical motor installation course. PLCs can be operated using programming languages such as sequence function charts, block diagrams, instruction lists, ladder diagrams, and others. This competency is important because it is often used in the industrial world. To create better and more effective conditions in the teaching and learning process, the development of teaching aids is needed to improve and enhance students' skills. This research, to design and development a useful teaching and learning tool teaching medium to help teachers teach concepts PLC-based electrical control systems, both theoretically and practically. The ADDIE model was used in developing the aids. The verification stage is carried out to ensure that the teaching aids that have been developed are suitable for use. In addition, this kit is relatively small with dimensions of 45x34x20 mm and is easy to move and can be used in various places. Confirmation involves lecturers and teachers who teach the field of electrical engineering. The results of the study found that the respondents strongly agreed that the PLC teaching aids was suitable for use in the learning process. Respondents also stated that using the tool because did not waste time and was easy to use. However, it is suggested that further research be conducted to identify the effectiveness of this teaching aid on students.

Keywords: development, teaching aids, PLC, ADDIE, vocational students.

Cite this article as: Pratama H., Azman M.N.A., Zakaria N.A., Khairudin M. (2021). Development of programmable logic controller teaching aids on electrical motor installation course among vocational school students in Aceh, Indonesia. Challenges of Science. Issue IV, pp. 117-127. https://doi.org/10.31643/2021.19



Title:  On methods of modifying natural minerals

 Authors:  Kenzhaliyev B., Surkova T., Berkinbayeva A., Dossymbayeva Z., Yesimova D., Abdikerim B.    

Abstract:    Recently, more and more attention is paid to the ecological safety of the republic due to the increased threat of environmental pollution by radionuclides, particularly by uranium, while the processing of uranium-containing raw materials generates a significant amount of liquid industrial waste. The main waste disposal method is a sorption, which requires the use of inexpensive sorbents. Such sorbents can be obtained on the basis of domestic natural raw materials. The significant disadvantages of natural sorbents are a low sorption capacity, which can be increased by developing effective and relatively cheap methods for their modification. The absence of the methods of modification is a limiting factor for the widespread using of natural sorbents for environmental purposes. Variants of modification of natural aluminosilicate and coal-mineral raw materials of Kazakhstan by physical and chemical methods are considered. The chemical methods include the modification with a mixture of tributylphostat and di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid in kerosene to obtain "solid-phase extractants", a mixture of phosphoric acid and polyacrylamide, and the synthesis of organominerals. The possibility of using technogenic raw materials as a modifying reagent has been studied. Zeolite of the previously unexplored Kosmurun deposit and shungite of the Koksu deposit were selected for research, and slags of phosphorus production were selected as a technogenic raw materials. Their physical and chemical properties have been studied.

Keywords: natural sorbents, zeolite, shungite, modification, sorption capacity.

Cite this article as: Kenzhaliyev B.; Surkova T.; Berkinbayeva A.; Dossymbayeva Z.; Yesimova D.; Abdikerim B. (2021). On methods of modifying natural minerals. Challenges of Science. Issue IV, pp. 128-133.  https://doi.org/10.31643/2021.20