|Title||PROCESSING OF KAZAKHSTANI DEPOSITS’ ORES FLOTATION TAILINGS BY MODIFIED FLOTATION AGENT|
|Authors||Syemushkina L.V., Turysbekov D.K., Mukhanova A.A., Narbekova S.M., Mukhamedilova A.M. (Almaty)|
Institute of Metallurgy and Ore Benefication, K. I. Satbayev KazNRTU, lab. flotation reagents and enrichment. Almaty, Kazakhstan
Syemushkina L.V., Cand. Tech. Sci, leading scientific worker, e-mail: email@example.com
Turysbekov D.K., Cand. Tech. Sci, leading scientific worker
Mukhanova A.A., scientific worker
Narbekova S.M., scientific worker
Mukhamedilova A.M., engineer
|Abstract||The ores refinement tailings are represented by a fine-grained mass, without a clear structure, inhomogeneous of substantial composition, mutual intergrowth of minerals, a variability of physical and chemical properties of the mineral surfaces under the influence of oxidation, corrosion, leaching and a number of other processes. The general principles creation in order to choose the collecting agents’ compositions for selective flotation of the separated minerals; the development of reagent schemes based on the use of a combination of collecting agents of a different ionogenicity remains an urgent task. A possibility of retreatment of tailings of flotation ore enrichment of Tishinsky, Shalkiinsky and Ridder-Sokolny deposits with application of a modified flotation reagent was considered. The modified collecting agent represents a mixture of compositional aerofloat, thione-carbamate and butyl xanthate. The raw materials for obtaining compositional aerofloat was a compositional mixture of C3H7-C6H13-OH alcohols allocated from the drained alcoholic fraction of fusel oil. It has been shown that the use of a modified collecting agent when retreatment of tailings of flotation ore enrichment of the Tishinsky deposit allows to increase the extraction of useful components into the collective concentrate: copper by 9.63%, lead by 8.41%, zinc by 9.2%, iron by 2.73%, gold – by 3.57%. The modified collecting agent, in comparison with the basic regime, allows to increase the lead content in the concentrate by 5.0% when flotation of the tailings of the Shalkiya deposit. In the rough zinc concentrate, the zinc extraction is increased by 9.13%. An effective technology of tailings retreatment of the flotation ore enrichment of the Ridder-Sokolny deposit with the use of modified flotation reagents was developed. An application of the modified collecting agent improves the extraction of useful components in a collective copper-lead-zinc concentrate produced from the ore enrichment tailings of the Ridder-Sokolny deposit: copper by 2.31%, lead by to 9.12%, zinc by 4.61% , iron by 3.68%, gold by 10.74%. The consumption of the modified reagent is reduced by 15-20% compared to the basic collecting agent.|
|Key words||floatation tailings, extraction, a modified reagent, flotation, concentrate|
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|Title||PRODUCTION OF CHROMITE CONCENTRATE FROM TAILING OF ORE BENEFICATION|
|Authors||Gladyshev S. V., Abdulvaliyev R. A., Kenzhaliyev B. K., Dyusenova S. B., Imangaliyeva L. M. (Almaty)|
Institute of Metallurgy and Ore Benefication, K. I. Satbayev KazNRTU, lab. alumina and aluminum. Almaty, Kazakhstan
Gladyshev S. V., Cand. Tech. Sci, leading scientific worker,
Abdulvaliyev R. A., Cand. Tech. Sci, head of lab.
Kenzhaliyev B. K., Doctor of Tech. Sci., Member of the Corr. General Director – Chairman of the Board.
Dyusenova S. B., leading engineer
Imangaliyeva L. M., leading engineer, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
|Abstract||The article covers the results of research on processing production waste – sludge tailings from benefication of chromite ore of Donskoy Mining and Processing Plant of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The technology for producing the chromite concentrate by a method of chemical enrichment and centrifugal separation was developed. The technology includes operations of pre-activation of the chromite-containing sludge in sodium bicarbonate solution, leaching into the ammonium hydrosulfate solution and the gravity enrichment in a centrifugal separator. Performing the operation of pre-activation is necessary for increasing the degree of enrichment of chromite-containing sludge at leaching due to removing of the accompanying elements – magnesium, silicon and iron. In the performed investigations at choosing a reagent for the leaching of sludge tailings, were received the best results while using a solution with 30 % of NH4HSO4. From the data of X-ray phase and chemical analysis follows that at the leaching of sludge tailings, rock-forming minerals dissolve and metals run into a solution in general, and chromite, chromite-containing minerals, kaolin and amorphous silica remain in the cake – rougher concentrate. Chromite concentrate which consists of the mineral chromite – (Fe0,194Mg0,834)(Cr0,723Al0,24)2O4 with Cr2O3 content of 59.2 % and Cr2O3 in the extraction of the concentrate 86.8 %, was obtained by enrichment rougher concentrate on KNELSON centrifugal separator. Development of technology for the processing of chromite sludge will not solve onlythe environmental problem, but also increase the production of chromite concentrate.|
|Key words:||slurry tailings, activation, ammonium hydrosulfate, centrifugal separator, chromite concentrate|
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|Title||HYDROGEN ENRICHED WATER GAS OBTAINING AND VALUABLE COMPONENTS RECOVERY AT CO-PROCESSING WASTES OF METALLURGY AND THERMAL POWER PLANTS WITH EKIBASTUZ COAL|
|Authors||Dikhanbayev A. B., Aliyarov B. K., (Almaty), Mukhitdinov J. N., (Tashkent, Uzbekistan) Dikhanbayev B. I. (Astana)|
Almaty Power and Communication University’s chair “Thermal power installations” Dikhanbayev A. B., Phd
Aliyarov B. K., Dr of engineering sci., professor of chair.
“Thermal power engineering” of Tashkent State Technical University named after I. Karimov. (Tashkent, Uzbekistan)
Mukhitdinov J. N., Dr of engineering sci., professor of chair
Thermal Power Engineering” of Kazakh Agrotechnical University named after S. Seifullin. (Astana),
Dikhanbayev B. I. Dr of engineering sciences, senior teacher of chair, e-mail: email@example.com
|Abstract||The article presents the results of the work on development of special installation for joint recycling of production waste from metallurgy and thermal power plants: slag and ash, and Ekibastuz coal. Annually the dumps of metallurgical enterprises of Republic of Kazakhstan receive about 700 million tons of waste, polluting the atmosphere and soil. The concentration of valuable components in them is high enough and not lower than in natural ores. The Ekibastuz basin’s total coal reserves are more than one billion tons, wherein almost half is the ash part. Every year from 25 to 38 million tons of ash and slag, those pose a serious threat to nature, are collected in dumps. The concentration of gallium and germanium in the dumps is ~200 g/t, which is commensurably with their content in the initial coal. The work aim is creating an aggregate for the production of hydrogen-enriched water gas from Ekibastuz coal with the associated production of zinc, gallium, germanium sublimates, copper-bearing pig iron, slag wool and/or stone casting at the joint processing of zinc-bearing slag and ash-slag of thermal power plants. To solve the problem, the main theses of the method of extreme energy saving and new method – the melt layer with phase inversion were used. The results of experiments, carried out on the installation “phase inversion reactor – tube kiln” for processing germanium-containing zinc slag, showed the possibility of germanium extracting into zinc sublimates, iron reducing in the form of cuprous cast iron, obtaining energy-rich fuel gas and melt of slag suitable for slag wool production. Calculation studies of joint processing of Ekibastuz coal and zinc-containing slag on the offered installation “phase inversion reactor – tube kiln – gas generator” have shown the possibility of obtaining hydrogen-enriched water gas with the associated recovery of valuable components of the initial raw materials – production waste and the coal.|
|Key words||hydrogen-enriched water gas, phase inversion reactor – tube kiln – gas generator, cuprous iron, zinc-, germanium-containing sublimates|
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|Title||COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS of TECHNOLOGY PARAMETERS of CHARGE PREPARATION for DIRECT IRON RECOVERY from SSOMDE IRON CONCENTRATE with VARIOUS REDUCTANTS|
|Authors||Kovzalenko V. A., Sarsenbay G., Sadykov N. M-K., Abdulvaliyev R. A. (Almaty)|
Institute of Metallurgy and Ore Beneficiation, K. I. Satbayev KazNRTU, lab. alumina and aluminum. Almaty, Kazakhstan
Kovzalenko V. A., Cand. Tech. Sci, leading scientific worker, e-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org
Sarsenbay G., Cand. Tech. Sci, scientific worker
Sadykov N. M-K., junior scientific worker
Abdulvaliyev R. A., Cand. Tech. Sci, head of lab.
|Abstract||The paper covers the results of the development of a complex technology for the kaolinite clays retreatment with production of industrial products: an enriched kaolin, a soluble glass, a modified soluble glass and the quartz materials. The structure of kaolinite clays was studied and the chemical composition was determined. The effective conditions for the kaolinite clay enrichment were determined by dividing it into clay and quartz fractions by interaction with the aqueous phase in the L : S = 5: 1 ratio. As a result of clay fraction calcination, the enriched kaolin was obtained, %: Al2O3 – 38.2; SiO2 – 48.0; Fe2O3 – 0.71; Na2O – 0.15; K2О – 1.9. The quartz fraction exposed to an autoclave alkaline leaching process to produce a soluble glass. The result of thermal analysis shows, that the process of quartz fraction leaching is more appropriate to conduct with the unburned raw materials. It is because of the transformation of β-SiO2-quartz polymorph modification into the α-SiO2 quartz modification occurs when the fraction is heated; but after the following required cooling of the quartz fraction, a rapid reverse transformation of α modification to the initial β-SiO2 modification takes place. The effective technological conditions for high-temperature leaching of the quartz fraction by a sodium hydroxide solution resulting in soluble glass have been obtained: 180 °C temperature, the pressure 5 MPa, 5 hours duration. The conditions for the production of a modified soluble glass were determined: mixing of the soluble glass with a modifier at a 100 r/m speed, 80 °C temperature, 30 minutes duration. A starch, potassium bromide, PEK-400, dextrin, borax, potassium nitrate, sodium bromide, sorbite, sodium polyphosphate, sodium nitrate served as the modifiers. Based on the obtained modified soluble glasses used as the binders and quartz fractions, the siliceous materials are produced and their major characteristic – durability was determined. It was established that the adding of modifiers into the soluble glass leads to an abrupt increase of durability of siliceous samples, at this the most effective modifier is sodium nitrate. A hardware design of the complex retreatment technology of kaolinite clays and the technological scheme are presented.|
|Key words||kaolinite clay, enrichment, kaolin, quartz, leaching, soluble glass, modifier, modified soluble glass, quartz materials, technology|
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|Title||BARITE PHASE FORMATION DURING OXIDIZED LEAD AND ZINC ORES SINTERING|
|Authors||Sokolovskaya L. V., Kvyatkovskiy S. A., Semenova A. S. (Almaty)|
Institute of Metallurgy and Ore beneficiation, K. I. Satbayev KazNRTU, laboratory of pyrometallurgy of heavy non-ferrous metals. Almaty, Kazakhstan.
Sokolovskaya L. V., Cand. Tech. Sci, senior scientific worker
Kvyatkovskiy S. A., Doctor Tech. Sci., head of lab, e-mail: email@example.com
Semenova A. S., master, leading engineer
|Abstract||The paper presents results of investigation of barite phase formation during the processing of the oxidized lead-zinc ores from the Alashpai ore deposit by the methods of the thiosalts metallurgy. The phase formations at sintering charge containing the mix of the oxidized lead-zinc barite ore, sodium sulfate and carbonaceous reductant were studied under the temperatures varying from 973 up to 1173 K with using X-ray phase analysis and electron probe screening in modes COMPO, EDS and WDS. The researched ore sample from the Alashpai ore deposit contains, in accordance with the X-ray fluorescent analysis, mass %: 6.158 Pb; 6.978 Ba; 0.016 Zr; 0.222 Zn; 0.063 Cu; 3.955 Fr; 0.603 Mn; 0.270 Ti; 0.265 Ca; 0.684 К; 1.226 S; 13.702 Si; 4.527 Al; 0.967 Mg; 0.244 Na, rest – oxygen and other. Phase formation at the temperature of 973 K combines transformations of two types: disordering of the cation sublattice and a change in the symmetry of the anion sublattice. Subsequently, the barium cations are distributed over the vacancies of the crystallographic positions. Based on the results of the X-ray phase analysis, barium silicates BaSiO3, Ba4Si6O16, as well as an intermediate sulfate-sulfite complex Ba(SO3)0.3(SO4)0.7 are presented in the cake sintered at 973 K. The research results substantiate formation within 1073 K temperature of the thiosalts of barium, i.e. BaCu2SnS4, BaFe2S4, Ba3FeS5, Ba9FeS15, with concurrent formation of BaSiO3, Ba2Si3O8, Ba5Si8O21, Ba4(Si6O16), Ba2(Si4O10), BaFeSi4O10. In this sinters the cation of barium is an initiator of formation of thiosalts of the BanMemSz type. The rise in temperature up to 1173 K contributes to the destruction of barium compounds. Barium thiosalts decomposes with the formation of barium sulphide, the thiosalt crystal lattice breaks down into simpler structures. Solid solutions based on barium silicate also break down into constituent oxides of silicon and barium and further processes of formation of carbonates and barium sulphates take place.|
|Key words||barite, barium thiosalts, barium silicates, barium sulfide, sintering, phase formation, oxidized lead-zinc ore, Alashpai deposit, thiosalts metallurgy|
1 Sokolovskaya L.V., Zhalelev R.Z., Bajguatov D.I., Alekseev S.O. Issledovanie tverdofaznogo sinteza pri sozdanii sposobov pererabotki tekhnogennykh produktov mednogo proizvodstva (Research of solid phase synthesis during while development of methods for processing of technically obtained products of copper production). Sbornik nauchnykh rabot po problemam BGMK (Scientific research collection on BMMF problems). Balkhash, Kazakhstan, 2001. 225 (in Russ.).
2 Sokolovskaya L.V. Metody metallurgii tiosoley pri pererabotke tekhnogennykh svintsovykh materialov (Methods of thiosalts metallurgy in processing of technically obtained lead materials). Sbornik nauchnykh trudov «Metallurgiya, obogashcheniya, materialovedeniya» (Сompilation of scientific research papers«Metallurgy, beneficiation, materials science»). Almaty, Republic of Kazakhstan, 2009. 42–45 (in Russ.).
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4 Andreev O.V., Parshukov N.N. Sistema Cu2S-BaS kak vozmozhnyj VTSP (System of Cu2S-BaS as a possible HGSC). Zhurnal neorganicheskoj khimii = Russian Journal of Inorganic Chemistry. 1991. 36, 8, 2106-2107 (in Russ.).
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7 Parshukov N.N. Fazovye ravnovesiya v sistemakh La – S, A – Ln2S3 (A = Ca, Sr, Ba; Ln = Sm, Lu, Y) (Phase equilibrium at La-S, A-Ln2S3 (A=Ca, Sr, Ba; Ln = Sm, Lu, Y) systems). Avtoref.… kand. khim. nauk. (author’s abstract of thesis for PhD, Chemistry). Tyumen’: TGU, 1998. 19. (in Russ.).
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16 Toropov N.A., BarzakovskijV.P., LapinV.V., Kurtseva N.N. Diagrammy sostoyaniya silikatnykh sistem. Spravochnik. (Silicate systems state diagrams. Directory.). Leningrad: Nauka, 1969, 822 (in Russ.).
17 Shabanova G.N., Tsapko N.S., Logvinkov S.M. Fazovye ravnovesiya v vysokobarievoj oblasti sistemy BaO – Al2O3 – SiO2 (Phase equilibrium in high-Barium span of BaO – Al2O3 – SiO2 system) Voprosy khimii i khimicheskoj tekhnologii = Issue of chemistry and chemical technology. 2009. 4, 218–221 (in Russ.).
18 Sokolovskaya L.V., Kvyatkovskij S.A., Semenova A.S., Kim L.P., Sejsembayev R.S. Fazoobrazovaniya v protsesse spekaniya prikompleksnoj pererabotke okislennykh svintsovo-tsinkovykh baritovykh rud (Phase formation in the process of sintering during complex processing of oxidized lead-zinc barite ores). Kompleksnoye ispol’zovaniye mineral’nogo syr’ya = Complex use of mineral resources. 2016. 3, 42-47. (in Russ.).
|Title||STUDY OF THE PROCESS OF ARSENIC SUBLIMATION FROM SYNTHETIC COPPER SULPHOARSENIDE UNDER REDUCED PRESSURE|
|Authors||Nitsenko А. V., Burabayeva N. М., Trebukhov S. А., Bolatbekov B. B. (Almaty)|
Institute of Metallurgy and Ore beneficiation, K. I. Satbayev KazNRTU, lab. vacuum processes, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
Nitsenko А. V., Cand. Tech. Sci, Head of lab. e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Burabayeva N. М., Cand. Tech. Sci, Senior Researcher
Trebukhov S. А., Cand. Tech. Sci, Leading Researcher
Bolatbekov B. B., Engineer
|Abstract||One of the effective ways of arsenic extracting is heat treatment in a vacuum. To create and improve ecologically safe technologies for processing arsenic-containing raw materials, it is necessary to obtain data on the thermal behavior of arsenic-containing compounds, which typical for this material. The paper presents results of an experimental study of main parameters influence on the arsenic sublimation from synthetic lautite, which is an analog of one of the widespread copper sulphoarsenides in nature. The experiments arecarried out by thermogravimetrically method under isothermal conditions. It is established that on the degree of sublimation of arsenic is positively affected, besides increasing the temperature and lowering the pressure, also increasing the duration of exposing. Based on the results of X-ray phase analysis, it is established that the synthetic analogue of the natural compound CuAsS (lautite) at pressure of 0.133 kPa and a exposing time of 20 minutes decomposes by two stages. At temperature of 345–445 ºС, as a result of the decomposition of lautite, tennantite is formed, which then decomposes to copper sulphide at temperature of 595-725 °C, while the sublimes are an arsenic sulfides alloy. А multifactorial equation was constructed on basis of partial equations dependence of arsenic sublimation degree from main parameters. This multifactorial equation allows determining the optimal parameters for a high degree of arsenic extraction from CuAsS with destruction to copper sulfides and arsenic sublimates.|
|Key words||lautite, arsenic, high-temperature, low pressure, dearsenation, multifactorial equation, thermogravimetrically method|
|Title||STUDY OF HIGH-TEMPERATURE TRANSFORMATIONS IN «LEAD CAKE-SULFUR» SYSTEM|
|Authors||Serikbayeva A. K., Daulbekova A. R. (Aktau)|
Caspian State University of Technology and Engineering named after Sh. Esenov, Aktau, Kazakhstan.
Serikbayeva A. K., Cand. Tech. Sci, e-mail: email@example.com
Daulbekova A. R., Master
|Abstract||The article covers the phase transformations proceeding in system “lead cake – sulfur” at high temperatures. Thermal and X-ray diffraction analyses of lead cake and sulfur mixes in various weight ratios, equal to 1:0.1; 1:0.3; 1:0.5; 1:1.5, were carried out for identification of solid-phase sulfurization in the studied system. The thermal analysis were carried out on derivatograph Q-1000/D without air access by blockage of crucibles with the analyzed samples by aluminum oxide, in the range of temperatures 20-1000 оС, the heating mode – dynamic (dT/dt = 10 grad/min), reference substance – the calcinated Al2O3. The X-ray diffraction analysis were carried out on the automated DRON-4 diffractometer with CuКa – radiation, and the β-filter. Found that sulfide formation in the system “lead cake – sulphur” occurs in several stages with formation of intermediate lead oxy-sulfate compounds. After polymorphic transformation of sulfur at 60–120 °C interaction of the products of lead carbonate disintegration with sulfur (exothermic and endothermic reactions at 450 °C) proceeds, with forming in the range 170-400 °C first of all PbO•PbCO3+ CO2, and then PbS+CO2. Melting of component with composition PbS–PbO–PbSO4 at 520 °C testifies that above mentioned process flows. Two endothermic effects reveal themselves at 600 and 635 °C according to polymorphic transformations of two types of sulphate formations, as PbSO4 and Pb2SO5 respectively. The endothermic peak at 775 °C indicates melting of lead sulfate. The received data can used at developing pyrometallurgical ways for processing of copper production’s lead cake.|
|Key words||lead cake, sulfur, sulfide formation, thermogravimetry, X-ray phase analysis|
METAL SYSTEMS INVESTIGATION
|Title||MULTILAYER STRUCTURE OF INTERMETALLIDES IN DIFFUSION ZONE OF Al–Co SYSTEM|
|Authors||Aubakirova R. K., (Almaty), Mansurov Yu. N., (Moscow, Russia), Sukurov B. M., Ibrayeva G. M. (Almaty)|
“Institute of Metallurgy and Ore Beneficiation, K. I. Satbayev KazNRTU, Almaty, Kazakhstan
Aubakirova R. K., Cand. Tech. Sci, Senior Research Fellow
Sukurov B. M., Cand. Tech. Sci, Leading Research Fellow, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Ibrayeva G. M., PhD student, engineer
Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys, Moscow, Russia
Mansurov Yu. N., Doctor of Tech. Sci., Professor, Academician of Russian academy for natural sciences
|Abstract||The diffusion zone of Al-Co system was studied using the contact melting method. The microstructure and element composition in cross section of samples were studied by scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis (SEM-EPMA). The multilayer structure of intermetallides of Al-Co system formed after isothermal treatment in range of 700-1375 °С. Due to interaction between aluminum and cobalt the width of diffusion zone is growing with isothermal treatment duration rise. Few layers having different phase compositions and widths form in contact zone depending on steady-state concentration of metals. Each of the observed layers has its own clear boundaries and structure pattern. Four compounds with the variable compositions Al21Co79, Al44Co56, Al20Co80, and Al27Co73 (presumably berthollides) have been revealed at 1300-1375 °С due to comparison of element distribution alone the depth of diffusion zone with its microstructure. The layers are seemed as homogenous and having more smooth boundaries from cobalt side. Meanwhile from aluminum side the layer structure acquires the island-type form, and boundaries become more irregular with festoons appearance. The intermetallic compounds obtained at various temperatures correspond to pre-established phases with registered compositions (daltonides): Al9Co2, Al13Co4, Al3Co, Al5Co2, and AlCo (berthollide). The agglomerates of pores and cracks could be caused by stresses between the layers are detected. The formation of pores in case of the developed layer microstructure relates to Frenkel effect.|
|Key words||contact melting, scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, diffusion zone, multilayer structure, intermetallide, Al-Co diagram, aluminum, cobalt|
INORGANIC MATERIALS FROM MINERALS
|Title||POROUS MATERIAL OBTAINING BY OIL-FORMATING SHALES USE|
|Authors||Miryuk О. А. (Rudniy)|
Rudny Industrial Institute. Department of building construction materials.
Miryuk О. А. Doc. Tech. Sci., Professor, Head of the department e-mail: email@example.com
|Abstract||The article presents the results of development of resource-saving technologies of building materials for energy-efficient construction. Structural transformations in feed mixtures, containing oil-formating shales of the Shubarkul deposit, at their thermal treatment are investigated. The influence of oil-formating shales on the formation of the structure of ceramic and glass materials is determined. The presence of a fuel-containing rock in a clay charge promotes uniform firing and the formation of a sinter at a lower temperature. Introduction of oil-formating shale into the glass batch reduces the swelling temperature, provides an additional source of gas formation in the pyroplastic material. The compositions of glass charge for the preparation of alkali-silicate granules are recommended. To obtain a uniform porous structure of granules with low density, the content of oil-formating shales should not exceed 30 %. Investigation of the microstructure of alkali-silicate granules indicates the possibility of forming high polymodal porosity at low-temperature granules burning by changing the composition of the raw mix. Comparison of technical and economic indicators of granular materials of various composition is carried out. It is shown that the use of the developed alkali-silicate granules will provide savings due to improving the thermotechnical characteristics as compared to expanded clay. Alkali-silicate granules on the basis of a glass charge with oil-formating shales can be used as a filler of lightweight concrete and a heater.|
|Key words||oil-formating shale, cullet, alkali-silicate granules, lightweight concrete, baking, porosity|
1 Ibrahim N. M., Ismail K. N., Johari N. H. Utilization of fly ash in lightweight aggregate foamed concrete. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. 2016. 8, 5413 – 5417. (in Eng.)
3 Vajsman Ya.I., Ketov A.A. Vtorichnoe ispol’zovanie penostekla pri proizvodstve penosteklokristallicheskikh plit (Secondary use of foam glass in the production of foam glasscrystalline plates). Stroitel’nye materialy = Building materials. 2017. 5, 56 – 59 (in Russ.).
4 Ufimtsev V.M. Tekhnogennye zapolniteli vysokikh konditsij (Technogenic fillers of high standards). Tekhnologii betonov = Concrete Technology. 2017. 1 – 2, 39 – 41(in Russ.).
5 Lotov V.A., Kutugin V.A. Formirovanie poristoj struktury penosilikatov na osnove zhidkostekol’nykh kompozitsij (Formation of a porous structure of foam silicates based on liquid-glass compositions). Steklo i keramika = Glass and ceramics. 2008. 1, 6 – 10 (in Russ.).
6 Kulikov A.L., Orlov A.D., Vedyakov I.I., Vaskalov V.F. Zapolnitel’ dlya osobo legkikh betonov «Penosteklokeramika» (Filler for especially lightweight concrete «Foam glass»). Gazeta. Strojinvestindustriya = Newspaper. Stroyinvestvedindriya. 2013.03. 20 (in Russ.).
7 Mizuriaev S.A., Zhigulina A.Yu., Solopova G.S. Production technology of waterproof porous aggregates based on alkali silicate and non-bloating clay for concrete of general usage. Procedia Engineering. 2015. 111, 540 – 544. DOI: 10.1016/j.proeng.2015.07.038. (in Eng.)
8 Miryuk O.A. Vliyanie veshchestvennogo sostava syr’evoj massy na strukturu penosteklomateriala (Influence of the material composition of the raw material mass on the structure of foam glass material). Sovremennoe stroitel’stvo i arkhitektura = Modern construction and architecture. 2016. 3, 13 – 18 (in Russ.).
9 Bakunov B.C., Kochetkov V.A., Naddennyj A.B. Mnogofunktsional’nyj keramicheskij stroitel’nyj material kerpen (Multifunctional ceramic building material Kerpen). Stroitel’nye materialy = Building materials. 2004. 11, 10 – 11 (in Russ.).
10 Strokova V.V., Solov’eva L.N., Maksakov A.V., Ogurcova Yu.N. Mekhanizm strukturoobrazovaniya stroitel’nykh kompozitov s granulirovannym nanostrukturiruyushchim zapolnitelem (Mechanism of structure formation of building composites with granular nanostructured aggregate). Stroitel’nye materialy = Building materials. 2011. 9, 63 – 65 (in Russ.).
11 Bikbau M.Ya. Otkrytie yavleniya nanokapsulyatsii dispersnykh veshhestv (The discovery of the phenomenon of nanocapsulation of dispersed substances). Vestnik Rossijskoj akademii estestvennykh nauk = Herald of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences. 2012. 3, 27 – 35 (in Russ.).
12 Abdrakhimov V.Z., Nikulina E.S., Abdrahimova E.S. Innovatsionnye napravleniya po ispol’zovaniyu otkhodov toplivno-ehnergeticheskogo kompleksa v proizvodstve keramicheskikh materialov (Innovative directions for the use of waste fuel and energy complex in the production of ceramic materials). Izvestiya Vuzov. Stroitel’stvo = News of educational institutions. Construction. 2015. 9, 31 – 43 (in Russ.).
INDUSTRIAL WASTE UTILIZATION
|Title||ABOUT THE STATE AND PERSPECTIVES FOR DEVELOPMENT OF METHODS FOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL REPROCESSING. REVIEW|
|Authors||Balikhin A. V. (Moscow, Russia)|
|Russian Institute for Scientific and Technical Information of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, RussiaBalikhin A. V. Scientific editor of abstract magazine “Metallurgy of the non-ferrous metals”, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org|
|Abstract||The paper describes some methods of reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and concept for development of fast neutron reactors with sodium coolant. Now Russian Federation is the undoubted leader in development of fast reactors – the innovative technology, which is capable solving fundamental problems of the nuclear industry, such as effective use of uranium resources and safe management of spent nuclear fuel. Rosatom Corporation sites currently store more than of 24 thousands ton of spent fuel. The total annual discharge of spent fuel from the Russian NPS (Nuclear Power Stations) is approximately 650 tones, and only about 15 % of them reprocessed. Plutonium recovered from spent nuclear fuel of thermal neutron reactors can be used in the form of mixed oxide fuel UO2 + PuO2 (MOX fuel) The use of separated Pu in MOX fuel allows to lower the need for uranium by up to 30 %. The MOX fuel includes from 1,5 to 30 mass. % of PuO2. Reactors on fast neutrons effectively use this fuel. In its production irreversibly disposed surplus of weapons-grade plutonium. They could be became a radioactive waste or used for create nuclear weapons by countries with unstable regimes. The Russian program of development of nuclear energetics focuses on closed nuclear fuel cycle based on fast reactors. Only partial or complete closure of the fuel cycle can provide sustainable development of nuclear energetics. Another long-term option could be the use of thorium. A key issue associated with technological and environmental expediency of reprocessing spent NPS fuel is completeness of recycling of the recovered nuclear materials – primarily uranium and reactor-grade plutonium. So it is very important timely building series of fast BN-1200 reactors, which will become the main consumers of reactor-grade plutonium recovered from spent fuel at its reprocessing.|
|Key words||spent nuclear fuel, recycling, uranium, plutonium, oxides, acid leaching, liquid extraction, melt electrolysis, nuclear reactors, atomic power engineering|